Good communication is the key to any good business transaction, and
complete knowledge of the product or service you are promoting is
essential to all successful website and design work. At the Able Studio,
we strive to learn and understand your business and its lingo. In
turn, we have found that our clients tend to pick up our lingo also.
That's why we compiled this Glossary, to help you better understand
the general terms of our business.
The next time a designer or printer tries to talk some techno-babble
to you about grippers, registration and trapping, host-servers, or
bleed, you will have a resource to aid you in determining the truth
of the matter. Also, if you have any questions about the terms found
here, feel free to give us a call or drop an e-mail, because like
you, we love to talk about our business.
Address Book: A Web browser feature that allows the
storing of e-mail addresses.
Advertising Specialties: Items such as a calendars, coffee
cups, hats, matchbooks and pencils printed with advertising.
Accordion Fold: In binding, a term used for two or more parallel
folds which open like an accordion.
Acrobat: Adobe software that embodies the PDF format.
Antique Finish: A term describing the surface, usually on book
and cover papers, that has a natural rough finish. Roughest finish offered
on offset paper.
Application: A computer program used
for specific tasks such as word processing, editing photographs or laying
Aqueous Coating: Coating in a water base
and applied like ink by a printing press to protect and enhance the
Audio/Video Streaming: Audio/video
streaming allows you to provide visitors to your site with a real-time
sound or video experience.
Author's Amendments: Also
know as "AA's". Changed and additions in copy after it has been typeset.
Bad Break: In composition, starting
a page or ending a paragraph with a single word, or widow.
Bandwidth: The capacity of a computer channel or data transmission
cable and measured in bits or bytes per second. A measure of the amount
of information that can flow through a given point at any given time.
Bleed: Printing that goes to the edge of the sheet
Blowup: An image enlargement.
Blue line: A blue photographic proof used to check position
of all image elements.
Body Type: A type used for the
main part or text of a printed piece, as distinguished from the heading.
Bold-face type: A name given to type that is heavier
than the text type with which it is used.
URL that has been saved so that a user can return directly to that Web
address. Also called "favorite."
Browser: A software
program that reads HTML documents and allows the user to navigate the
World Wide Web. A person that casually explores the Web.
Joining images without overlapping.
Copy: Print ready mechanical art.
Disc Read Only Memory) In digital prepress, a laser encoded optical
storage disc that can store 650 Megabytes to over 1 Gigabyte of data
on a disc about the size of a traditional 5-inch floppy disk.
Chat Room: An online area where users may meet to communicate
and interact with others. There are two types of chat rooms: public
Chrome: A term for a transparency. Crop:
To cut off parts of a picture or image.
Coated paper: A
clay coated printing paper with a smooth finish.
Finish: Slightly puckered surface on bond paper.
A finishing term for gathering paper in a precise order.
Collateral: Printed pieces, such as newsletters and brochures,
that support or supplement display or broadcast advertising.
Color separations: The process of preparing artwork, photographs,
transparencies, or computer generated art for printing by separating
into the four primary printing colors.
An image which contains gradient tones from black to white.
Crop: To cut off parts of a picture or image.
Crop marks: Printed lines showing where to trim a printed sheet.
Cyberspace: The Internet and World Wide Web (coined
by William Gibson in his novel "Neuromancer").
A piece of information sent by a Web server to a Web browser that
expects the browser to save and send back to the server whenever the
browser makes additional requests from the server. Cookies may contain
Cyan: One of four standard process colors.
The blue color.
Density: The degree of color or darkness of an image or
Die Cutting: Curing images in or out of
Database: A collection of information, stored,
and organized for easy searching.
Desktop Publishing: Process
of composing pages using a standard computer, off-the-shelf software,
a device independent page description language like PostScript and outputting
them on a printer or imagesetter.
Document: An HTML
file containing text that appears in a Web browser as a page of information.
An information file.
Dot: An element of halftones.
Using a loupe you will see that printed pictures are made many dots.
Dots Per Inch: (dpi) A measure of the resolution of
a screen image or printed page. 300 dpi for print and 72 dpi for the
Domain Name: A textual alias for an IP address
based on the domain name system. Components of a domain name are separated
by a period (called "dot"). For example: The IP address 188.8.131.52
can have the alias www.bton.com.
Domain Name Server: A
computer that keeps track of addresses in a given organization or domain
and routes requests to specific addresses.
Service or System: A way of distributing information worldwide across
the Internet so that no one computer, person, or organization has to
keep track of everyone in the world. Computers are assigned standard
types of names depending on their domain, and domain name servers share
information about their specific area with other computers. Computers
in educational institutions are given names ending with the suffix .edu,
government offices have the .gov suffix, commercial sites end in .com,
and so on.
Doorway Page: Highly focused Web pages on
specific topics, services, or products. They are used to improve search
engine results and increase traffic to the Web site.
The period symbol (.) used to separate characters in a URL.
Download: Sending information to another computer or to
DNS: Acronym for Domain Name Server, Domain
Name Service, or Domain Name System. See domain name server and domain
Dummy: A rough layout of a printed piece
showing position and finished size.
Duotone: A halftone
picture made up of two printed colors.
Video or Versatile Disk) A CD-ROM that can store audio, video and computer
data at four or more gigabytes per disk.
Egg: A hidden message, graphic, or other feature built into a program
that users discover by typing or choosing undocumented commands.
e-business: Abbreviation for electronic business, conducting
business through electronic means.
for electronic commerce, transacting business through electronic means.
e-mail: Abbreviation for electronic mail, a system
for exchanging messages through networked computers.
address: A mailbox location on the Internet.
composition, a unit of measurement exactly as wide and high as the point
size being set. So named because the letter "M" in early fonts was usually
cast on a square body.
Emboss: Pressing an image into
paper so that it will create a raised relief.
Finish: Paper with a raised or depressed surface resembling wood,
cloth, leather or other pattern.
an image in relief to achieve a raised surface; either overprinting
or on blank paper (called blind embossing).
PostScript) In digital prepress, a file format used to transfer graphic
images within compatible applications. A file containing structured
PostScript code, comments and a screen display image.
In offset lithography, an acidified gum solution used to desensitize
the non-printing areas of the plate; also, an acid solution added to
the fountain water to help keep non-printing areas of the plate free
FAQ: Acronym for Frequently
Asked Questions, a page or section within a Web site that answers the
most common questions on a certain topic. An updated file posted to
newsgroups or servers. It is considered bad form to ask a question that's
covered in a FAQ page or section.
Favorite: A URL that
has been saved so that you can return directly to that Web address.
Also called "bookmark."
Firewall: A division bee-tween
a computer system on the Internet and the Internet as a whole. Firewalls
are used to limit access of the system's users to the outside world,
and vice versa, for security and economic reasons.
left: (or right) In composition, type set to line up at the left
(or right). This page is set flush left and right.
The reverse side of an image.
Folder: A group of
files in a directory.
Folio: The page number.
Font: A set of characters that, together, make up a typeface
such as Helvetica, Times, or Courier.
Fonts: A dialog
box that enables the user to change the font used to display text on
Form: An interactive Web document. The document
can contain fields into which readers can type information. This information
could be used as part of a survey, to purchase an item, to search a
database, and so on.
Forum: An online place where users
with similar interests may find information, exchange ideas, share files,
and get help on a particual topic or are of interest.
Color Process: The process of combining four basic colors to create
a printed color picture or colors composed from the basic four colors.
FPO: (For Position Only) In digital imaging, typically
a low-resolution image positioned in a document to be replaced later
with a higher resolution version of the same image. FTP:
Acronym for File Transfer Protocol, a method for transferring files
to and from remote computers on the Internet. See anonymous FTP.
Gang: Getting the most out of a printing press by using
the maximum sheet size to print multiple images or jobs on the same
sheet. A way to save money.
Ghosting: A faint printed
image that appears on a printed sheet where it was not intended. More
often than not this problem is a function of graphical design. It is
hard to tell when or where ghosting will occur. Sometimes you can see
the problem developing immediately after printing the sheet, other times
the problem occurs while drying. However the problem occurs it is costly
to fix, if it can be fixed. Occasionally it can be eliminated by changing
the color sequence, the inks, the paper, changing to a press with a
drier, printing the problem area in a separate pass through the press
or changing the racking (reducing the number of sheets on the drying
racks). Since it is a function of graphical design, the buyer pays for
the increased cost.
GIF: Acronym for Graphics Interchange
Format, a file format commonly used with graphics or photos displayed
on Web documents (originally developed by CompuServe).
A unit of measure for data storage equal to 1,024 megabytes. See
Gloss: A shiny look reflecting light.
Grippers: The metal fingers on a printing press that hold
the paper as it passes through the press.
for Graphical User Interface, such as the Macintosh Desktop, that provides
a way for an individual user to graphically view the masses of information
on the Internet, with inline or external images, sounds, buttons, icons,
and other methods.
Guide: A chosen or trained users
to assist users of forums, chat rooms, lists, etc.
The blank space or inner margin from printing area to binding.
Hairline: A very thin line or gap about the
width of a hair or 1/100 inch.
a continuous tone to dots for printing. hit: A single request from a
Web browser for a single item from a Web server; used to measure a Web
site's load on its server. Hard copy: The output of a computer
printer, or typed text sent for typesetting.
The white space above first line on a page.
A script on a Web server that registers a visit (or downloaded file)
to a Web page and may display the running total number of "hits." (Bee
advised: Hit counters are not always accurate and, in some cases, totals
can be manipulated.)
Highlight: The lightest areas
in a picture or halftone.
Home Page: The "welcome page"
or "entry page" of a Web site. The first page of a Web site. See also
Host: A computer that services others.
A designated facilitator of a chat room.
for HyperText Markup Language, the programming system used to create
Web pages. Web pages are based on ASCII text files. Within those files
sets of tags or "codes" define what each part of the document should
contain. For instance, a tag might reference a picture file, so a browser
reading the file will insert the appropriate picture at the defined
HTML tag: The tag "set" that makes up a complete
HTML markup command. For example: In The Beeline, the
is the cookie.
HTTP: Acronym for HyperText Transfer
Protocol, the protocol used by Web servers to communicate with Web clients.
See client and server.
Hypertext: Any text that contains
a hyperlink to another document. See HTML and hypertext link.
Hypertext link: A string of text characters usually distinguished
by underlining and/or highlighting that, when clicked on, takes the
user to another section of the Web page, a new new page or another Web
site. Hypertext links are added using the HTML tag . See anchor.
Index: A service on the
Internet, such as The Beeline and Yahoo, that arranges information to
help you select what you want to read. Interactive Media: A relational
(usually graphical) database where document files are referenced and
/ or linked to one another (pioneered by Intergraph and their Interactive
Graphics Design System); any form of electronic media that responds
to the actions of the user.
Interlaced Image: An extra
step in the information process that enables a browser to display increasing
amounts of information, in passes, instead of the entire image at once.
A low-resolution version appears after the first pass, then a medium-resolution
version appears after a second pass, and finally the final image displays
after the last pass.
Internet: An international network
of networked computers that evolved from ARPANET. See ARPANET.
Image Area: Portion of paper on which ink can appear. ISP:
Acronym for Internet Service Provider, a company or organization that
provides access to the Internet in some form.
Positioning printed pages so they will fold in the proper order.
Impression: Putting an image on paper.
Adding copy to a previously printed page.
JPEG: Acronym for Joint Photographic Experts Group, a graphic
image compression format. (There are also .JPG and .JPE extensions.)
Java: A computer language developed by Sun Microsystems
that enables the creation of "applets" or "live objects" that execute
in response to mouse clicks to produce sound, video and other effects
within a Web browser. See applet.
In typesetting, subtracting space between two characters, making
them closer together.
Keyword: Word(s) used in a search
Kilobyte: A unit of measure for data storage
equal to 1,024 bytes. See byte.
Knock Out: To mask
out an image.
LAN: Acronym for Local
Area Network, a network of computers usually located in an office, building
Laminate: To cover with film, to bond
or glue one surface to another.
Launch: To start up
Leading: (pronounced ledding) In composition,
the distance between lines of type measured in points.
The drawing or sketch of a proposed printed piece. In platemaking,
a sheet indicating the settings for a step-and-repeat machine.
Library: An online area where files may be downloaded from
or uploaded to.
Lines Per Inch: The number of rows
of dots per inch in a halftone.
Link rot: An expression
for broken links (nonworking URLs).
Link Location Bar:
A text-entry window that contains the URL of the site currently
onscreen, or a site, file, or object to be accessed next.
Login: Account name assigned in a computer system to allow access
by a particular person; the act of accessing a computer system.
Loupe: A magnifying glass used to review a printed image,
plate and position film.
red, one of the basic colors in process color.
for Macintosh Operating System [the weaker computer system].
Matte finish: Dull paper or ink finish.
A term for a camera-ready pasteup of artwork. It includes type,
photos, line art, etc., all on one piece of artboard.
A unit of measure for data storage equal to 1.024 kilobytes or 1,048,576
bytes of data. See byte and kilobyte.
Memorandum of engagement:
An agreement, usually between service provider and client, stating
an intent to enter into a working relationship; a pre-contract document.
Menu: In electronic publishing, a method for selecting
alternative functions displayed as a list on a workstation screen. Selection
via mouse, key or sequence of keys.
Meta Tags: An HTML
tag that identifies the contents of a Web page. Using a format, Meta
tags contain such things as a general description of the page, keywords
for search engines and copyright information.
A note posted on a message board for others to read. See post.
Message Board: An area where users can post messages to
exchange information, ask a question, or reply to another message. Message
Center: A cluster or group of message boards.
An exact copy of something.
Mirror Site: An exact
copy of another Web or FTP site.
for MOdulator / DEModulator, a device that connects a computer to a
phone line. Converts computer's digital signals to analog audio frequencies
so they can be transmitted over phone lines.
for Moving Pictures Experts Group, a movie-file format commonly used
on the Web.
Net vet: An Internet user since bee-fore
the introduction of the World Wide Web.
citizen of the Internet. A person who has made the Internet a part of
their lifestyle. The term connotes civic responsibility and participation.
Network: Two or more computers connected together to
share resources. Two or more networks are an intranet. See intranet.
OCR: (Optical Character Recognition)
An electronic means of scanning (reading) copy and converting the scanned
image to an electronic equivalent. The ability to "read" printed text
(characters) and convert it to digitized files that can be saved on
disk and edited as a text file. offline: Disconnected from the Internet.
Online: Connected to the Internet.
Community: A group of users bound together by their shared interest
or characteristic of interacting with other users through the Internet.
Opacity: The amount of show-through
on a printed sheet. The more opacity or the thicker the paper the less
show-through. (The thicker/heavier the paper the higher the cost.)
Page Count: Total number of pages in a book
Pagination: In computerized typesetting,
the process of performing page makeup automatically
A code used to access locked data.
PDA: Acronym for
Personal Digital Assistant, a hand-held computer that performs a variety
of tasks, including personal information management and online access.
PDF: Acronym and suffix for Page Description Format, the file
format created by Adobe Acrobat, a type of portable document.
Perfect bind: A type of binding that glues the edge of sheets
to a cover like a telephone book, Microsoft software manual, or Country
Pica: Unit of measure in typesetting.
One pica = 1/6 inch.
POP: Acronym for Point of Presence
and Post Office Protocol. A point of presence usually means a location
where a network can be connected to. Post Office Protocol refers to
the way e-mail software gets mail from a mail server. See PPP and SLIP.
Popup Menu: This generally describes any menu that
"pops up" on a computer screen or a Web page when the mouse button is
Portal Page: A Web page that gives an overview
of a Web site and may include an index menu or navigational guide to
main sections and important areas within the site. A dedicated Web page
published by a directory, reference, or portal site about another Web
site. Portrait: In photography, vertical orientation of a format
as opposed to landscape horizontal orientation.
A page description / programming language developed by Adobe Systems
that describes a page in a way that is device-independent so that the
quality of output depends solely on the resolution of the output device.
Post: An electronic message. The act of putting information
online, usually to a message board.
Private: The state
of being in a private room.
Private Key: A Web user's
personal key, which is never distributed on the Internet, used in public
/ private key transactions. See key and public key.
Room: A chat room created by a user for a specific rendezvous with
another online user.
Process Colors: Cyan (blue), magenta
(process red), yellow (process yellow), black (process black).
Profile: A brief biography of a user.
Domain: Information, graphics, sound files, movies, and anything
else that is not copyrighted or is not owned by anyone.
Query: To inquire into or ask about.
A list of files waiting to be processed, usually in the order they
QuickTime: A method developed by Apple
Computer for storing movie and audio files in digital format.
quote: A Web browser button that enables the user to import the
contents of the current page into a text-entry field.
To include parts of an original message or e-mail in a reply. See attached
Ragged Left: Type that is justified
to the right margin and the line lengths vary on the left.
Ragged Right: Type that is justified to the left margin and the
line lengths vary on the right.
RAM: Acronym for Random
Release: To make available to the general
public, such as a file in a library. See file and library.
Remote Staff: Users who serve as hosts, guides, forum leaders,
consultants, etc., from their homes or outside the structured organization.
Reverse: The opposite of what you see. Printing the
background of an image. For example; type your name on a piece of paper.
The reverse of this would be a black piece of paper with a white name.
Router: A special-purpose computer or software package
that handles the connection between two or more networks.
Robot: A program that searches huge numbers of files automatically
when given search criteria. Also called a "worm." See
Saddle Stitch: Binding a booklet or magazine with staples
in the seam where it folds.
Scanner: Device used to
make color separations, halftones, duo tones and tri tones. Also a device
used to scan art, pictures or drawings in desktop publishing.
Score: A crease put on paper to help it fold better.
Screen Name: A pseudonym or "handle" that is used in place of
the user's real name.
Scroll: The movement of incoming
information on the computer screen. The act of repeatedly typing similar
words on the screen, or spacing out the letters of a word.
Scroll Bar: The bar on the side of a window or frame that allows
the contents to move up and down, or on the bottom of a window or frame
to move the information to the right and left.
Using the same paper as the text for the cover.
The short cross-lines at the ends of the main strokes of many letters
in some typefaces.
Search: Specific exploration of
online information rather than a casual examination. See database, file,
library, and searchable.
Search Engine: The Dewy Decimal
System of the Internet, [We wish!].
A program used by a search service that takes users through the Internet
to find what they want information on. When a search request is sent
to a search engine, the request is checked against the index that the
engine has already compiled. Also called "crawlers," "spiders," "wanderers,"
or "worms." See robot. Searchable: A collection of logically
related records or database files that serve as a single central reference.
Self-extracting archive: (.sea)A compressed file that
contains instructions to automatically decompress itself when opened.
Server: A computer running a special program that can
send Web pages to browsers in response to requests. See client and network.
.SIT: Filename extension that denotes a file created
by a StuffIt software program. Also denotes a "stuffed" or "archived"
Site stamp: Postage stamp-sized image and design
that represents a particular Web site (coined by Míc Miller).
SMTP: Acronym for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, a set of standard
procedures for transferring mail.
Snail Mail: Conventional
Sounds: Any audio output that cannot be
classified as music.
Spam: Unsolicited, commercial
postings. (Coined after a Monty Python comedy skit and a registered
trademark of Hormel Corp.)
Spyware: A general term
for a software program that monitors your activities on the computer.
StuffIt Expander: Freeware published by Aladdin Systems
that decodes and decompresses encoded files that have also been compressed.
Sysop: Abbreviation for System Operator, the person
who operates and maintains a computer system or service.
Shorthand for computer system, operating system or both. See operating
T-1: A leased-line connection
capable of carrying data at 1,544,000 bits-per-second. See bandwidth,
bit, byte, ethernet, and T-3. [Aronald not included]
A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 44,736,000
bits-per-second. See bandwidth, bit, byte, ethernet, and T-1.
TCP / IP: Acronym for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet
Protocol, a packet-based communication protocol that forms the foundation
of the Internet.
Terabyte: A unit of measure for data
storage equal to 1,024 gigabytes. See gigabyte.
A device that allows you to send commands to a computer somewhere
Terminal server: A special-purpose computer that
has places to plug in many modems on one side and a connection to a
LAN or host machine on the other side. See LAN, modem, host, node, PPP,
Thread: A discussion that travels along the
same subject line. See message board.
for Tagged Image File Format, a format for storing computerized image
Timeout: The disconnection of an idle user to
free up a connection for other users.
Title Bar: Area
along the top of a document window that gives the title of that document.
Topic: The narrowest division of information within
a Beeline Web site. See category and section.
GIF: A GIF image that appears to float directly atop a Web page
without its own background or border. A specific number in the GIF color
palette (#89) is assigned to be the same color as the page's background,
giving the image a transparent appearance.
A positive photographic slide on film allowing light to pass through.
Transparent copy: A film that light must pass through
for it to be seen or reproduced.
Transparent ink: A
printing ink that does not conceal the color under it.
The ability to print one ink over the other.
Similar to crop or register marks. These marks show where to trim
the printed sheet.
Trim size: The final size of one
printed image after the last trim is made.
A software program that doesn't necessarily replicate itself, but
like the legendary wooden horse in Greek mythology is much more than
it appears. A Trojan horse program might look like a game, but instead
it steals your personal information and sends it to others.
Typo: Shorthand for typographical error.
Upload: To transfer information from a local computer to
a remote computer.
URL: Acronym for Uniform Resource
Locator, a Web "address." Every page on the Web can be referenced by
a unique address, containing the Internet host address of the Web server,
and, sometimes, the path through the directory structure on the Web
server's hard drive to a particular file and the name of that file.
Take for example the URL http://www.bton.com/tb17/webdefs.html. The
http:// tells the browser to request a file via HyperText Transfer Protocol,
the www.bton.com is the host address of the Web server, /tb17/ is the
directory on the Web server, and webdefs.html is the name of the file
containing the Web page.
User: Any person operating
UV coating: Liquid laminate bonded and
cured with ultraviolet light. Environmentally friendly.
Varnish: A clear liquid applied to printed surfaces
for looks and protection. (UV coating looks better.)
Halftone: A halftone whose background gradually fades to white.
Virus: A software program that has the ability to attach
itself to other software or files, without permission or knowledge of
the user, and is usually designed to propagate itself, obtain "secured"
information, alter operating systems, or destroy data.
W3: See World Wide Web.
Web Analyst: A
highly skilled person who can troubleshoot and repair breakdowns in
Web Author: A person who creates Web pages
and Web sites.
Web Clinic: Place where Web sites are
analyzed and repaired (coined by Míc Miller).
An HTML-scripted file which may contain text, images, a colored
and/or patterned background, and even embedded video and sound files.
Web Project: A collection of Web pages that are under
development and are independent of the Web servers that serve them.
Web Publisher: A person who publishes others' Web pages
and Web sites.
Web Server: A computer set up to exchange
information with another computer over the Internet using one or more
standard protocols, such as FTP, Gopher, HTTP, and others. A Web server
can host several Web sites by providing URLs that define a path to the
Web site. Some types of computers can support multiple unique URLs on
a single server.
Web Site: A collection of Web pages
residing on a Web server. Web sites are usually synonymous with a URL.
Webliography: A Web-based bibliography.
A cross bee-tween an online journal and a list of commented links; also
called a "blog."
Webmaster: A person who both creates
Web pages and manages a Web server.
Window: A bordered area
of a computer screen that contains information, usually a file.
Windows: A graphical extension of the DOS operating system.
[the better OS}.
Work the Web: Phrase for networking
with people through the Web.
World Wide Web: A subset
of the Internet that enables hypertextual navigation and multimedia
presentation of information globally. The World Wide Web is often known
as the Web, WWW, and sometimes W3. See browser, FTP, Gopher, HTTP, Telnet,
URL, and WAIS.
Worm: A computer virus that replicates
itself without human intervention.
WWW: See World Wide
XHTML: Acronym for Extensible Hypertext
Markup Language, used to create Web pages.
.ZIP: Filename extension for a file created by PKZip, the standard
compression software used on DOS- and Windows-based computers.
Zoom Box: A small box in the upper-right corner of a window,
which, when clicked on, causes the window to expand to fill the entire
computer screen. Clicking on an expanded window's zoom box will return
the window to its previous size.
for two dimensions, where an object or element is defined only by "x"
(width) and "y" (height) dimensions.
for three dimensions, where an object or element is defined by "x" (width),
"y" (height), and "z" (depth) dimensions to realistically represent
a solid object or element.